The LP-model provides a working method in
which the teachers collaborate in groups according to specific
principles. The aim is to establish a good learning environment which
ensures that all students acquire social skills and subject knowledge.
The methodology involves a systematic approach to analysis and
reflection, together with the development of appropriate measures and
LP-model is a work strategy for raising levels of expertise. The model
is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Primary and Secondary
Education/Ministry of Education (Utdanningsdirektoratet). The
methodology has been tested through a research-based development
project in 14 schools spread over three local authorities. Lillegården
Resource Centre has had responsibility for the development work, whilst
the Norwegian Institute for Social Research (NOVA) has had
responsibility for evaluating the project.
evaluation of the LP-project shows that it has achieved good results in
vital areas of the school:
Students in the project schools exhibit better social skills in the
form of self control, adjustment to the norms of the schools and
Students are less prone to problem behaviour and there is a calmer,
more ordered atmosphere during lessons. The incidence of bullying has
Relationships between students and teachers have improved and the
atmosphere between students has also developed in a positive way.
The environment and culture within the school have improved and a
stronger collaboration between the teachers has been established.
Parents are happier with the information they get from the school and
the dialogue they have with the teachers.
Lillegården Resource Centre invites local authorities, schools and
PP-services to participate in the work of the LP-model.
(to the top)
Recent research shows that students’ learning and behaviour are linked
to and explained by a series of conditions or factors related to the
situations in which the students find themselves. (Egelund og
Foss-Hansen 1997, Sørlie 2000, Ogden 2001, Nordahl 2003, 2005). In the
school such factors can, for example be linked to the relationships
between peers, the relationship between student and teacher, the
teaching, classroom management and the student’s well-being (Nordahl
2000). Behavioural problems, both in and outside the school, manifest
themselves as a result of a complex phenomenon.
consequences of this knowledge are that behavioural problems and the
development of a good learning environment can not be resolved by a
particular strategy within the school and that it is not sufficient to
focus on the person responsible for the behaviour. This understanding
has its basis in systems theory. A systematic understanding of actions
and behaviour therefore implies that an interaction takes place between
the environment and the single individual.(Bronfenbrenner 1979)
This interaction occurs when children and youngsters learn in a
meaningful way at school and also when they display a variety of
behavioural problems (Patterson 1982).The LP- model uses systems theory
as a way of understanding that an interaction, in the form of
communication and direct social interaction occurs between the
participants. It is the social dynamic and the interaction which are of
interest in the understanding of the systems theory which is applied.
system perspective is vital in order to understand how the students
experience the learning environment, which behavioural and learning
results they achieve and how behavioural problems and lack of learning
can be met in an appropriate way. The patterns and structures of the
social systems in which the children and teenagers take part, influence
the actions they display.
analysis and reflection
(to the top)
LP-model is a system theoretic analysis model and not a method. It is a
model for the analysis of educational challenges, the improvement of
the learning environment and the realisation of suitable education in
the school. The aim is to gain an explicit understanding of the factors
which trigger, influence and maintain the students’ actions and
behaviour. The model includes a range of work principles which
demonstrate how one should proceed in order to arrive at a decision
about what should be done. The teachers themselves evolve the measures
which should be used in order to develop good learning environments.
The measures should be directed towards reducing the importance of the
factors which trigger and maintain problems in the school.
Work with the LP-model does not follow traditional strategies which
involve trying out a method or a particular measure in the school. The
measures which the teachers will implement will be developed locally as
a result of an analysis of the challenges and conditions in the
particular class/group or school. This is in accordance with research
on how development work should be carried out in school.
procedural method can be simply outlined as follows:
Analysis and reflection section:
A teacher presents to the teachers’ group a challenge related to a
student, group/class or his/her own class management.
Collective analysis of the challenge takes place in order to arrive at
a concrete approach to the problem and to determine what information
needs to be collected.
Collective planning concerning the assembling of information.
The collecting of information.
Analysis of the information in order to find those factors responsible
for causing the problem.
Strategy and Measures section:
Collective strategy and the development of measures.
Collective preparation of a plan for implementing the measures.
The teacher implements the plan for three to six weeks
Collective evaluation of the implementation.
The plans can be revised along the way.
(to the top)
teacher who is closest to the class/group or pupil, decides what
aspects will be worked on and the measures which will be implemented.
“The one doing the job, knows the problems.”
This is the basis which determines who will decide what will be
analysed and reflected upon when the groups of teachers endeavour to
understand and find appropriate strategies which can be used to solve
or reduce the challenges facing the school.
When it is the teachers themselves who define what is complicated and
difficult, they probably also know best what they need to learn more
about. This type of approach to development work in the school means
that it is the teachers who come with the request for new theories. It
is not the teachers’ superiors who define what the teachers need to
learn more about.
teacher is not alone
(to the top)
teachers are members of teacher-groups within the school and in the
process, they receive support from their colleagues and from the
PP-service. The work of analysis and reflection takes place over time
within long established groups. The same colleagues meet at regular,
fixed times – they systematize the work. Working together, they have a
joint responsibililty to highlight challenges which occur in different
LP-model assumes that the teachers cooperate, among other things, in
order to achieve the best results. Teacher-groups will be established
so that the teachers meet regularly in order to utilize the model’s
principles. It appears to be an advantage if the composition of the
teacher-groups cuts across the existing team and year group structures.
A leader is chosen for the group and it is the leader’s responsibility
to lead the work in the group thereafter.
(to the top)
work is organised along the lines of learning organisations. Increased
expertise and competence can be achieved in a supportive and positive
Teachers are given the opportunity to acquire new expertise on which
they can reflect. It involves utilising new concepts and internalising
them such that one’s own behaviour may be altered. This can then
reflect new expertise and insight. Expertise will be developed and
organising the work through groups which meet systematically at regular
time intervals, the teachers can develop a culture in which they can,
through reflection distance themselves from the complexities and
difficulties of daily life. They will learn to be less afraid to speak
out, they will develop together and they will learn to trust one
another. The aim is that the individual teacher will become a
participant who can argue and stand by what she/he says, and who dares
to come forward instead of feeling a victim of the pupils’ “bad
knowledge-based work experience/practice
(to the top)
LP-model is based on knowledge of the effective development work in
schools and on the research into what characterises good schools when
considering the prevention, handling and reduction of problem behaviour
in the school (Hargreaves 1996, Charlton & David 1993).
PP-service which will advise schools which wish to utilise the
LP-model, will be involved in the training of advisers. These external
advisers will be able to carry out the training of school coordinators
and teacher-group leaders within the local authority. The PP-service
will advise the teacher-groups and coordinators on the use of the
Lillegården Resource Centre will arrange for network meetings and a
chatroom where the various LP- participants can exchange views and
discuss experiences using the model. Within the local authorities,
course or topic days will be arranged for all those using the LP-model.
The themes for the course days will involve relevant research on
problem behaviour, the learning environment, classroom management and
the learning achievements of the pupils.
(to the top)
LP-model will facilitate the development of knowledge through the
exchange of experiences between the PP-services, schools and local
authorities, in the form of physical meetings and electronic conference
There are many ways of operating a network, but whatever the method, a
network aimed at following up the PP-collaborators (ie those working
with the LP-model) is not aimed at evaluating the participants’ work.
Neither is it a question of “agreeing”, nor a meeting which focuses on
those who are not capable enough.
Through such networks it is hoped to engage in innovative work with the
intention of improving practice and widening the repertoire of courses
of action available to the individual participant.
Network meetings will be an arena for the exchange of experiences and
for reflection. It is planned that the most experienced members in the
group contribute by giving a presentation of practice and the
challenges which are linked to it. After this type of presentation, it
is hoped that members share experiences with one another, reflect on
them from different perspectives and in this way create a basis for new
and better practice.
Networks’ strengths are characterised primarily by:
The level of involvement which the participants feel towards the
subject of practice and the problems which arise in relation to their
own/ collective professional practice.
The mutual dependence on each other’s ability and competence.
The willingness, which is based on the confidence and trust that
Lillegården Resource Centre functions as coordinator
The taking of mutual responsibility for each other’s benefit from the
network, the regular exchange of giving and receiving advice
Recording and evaluating
(to the top)
All participating schools will be offered good,
tried and tested recording methods and the opportunity to get
research-based processing of the results. In the evaluation of the
LP-model a selection of questionnaires will be used. The questionnaires
were tried out earlier, both nationally and internationally, and were
characterized by the fact that in the presentation of the results,
factors, and not just simple questions could be extracted. By the use
of the word “factors” it is understood that several questions together
were used to measure the extent of a phenomenon. This means that with a
relatively high degree of certainty, one can say that the results are
both reliable and valid.
evaluation methods which are used for the LP-model, have now been tried
on a total of ca 3,000 pupils and their teachers and parents, through
the ”LP-project” (www.eldhusetfagforum.no/lp-prosjektet). This provides
a good database for the comparison of results within the individual
schools with those of a cross-section of other schools in Norway. By
continued use of these questionnaires in the LP-model, schools will
quickly be able to evaluate their weaknesses and strengths, and with
this as a basis, be able to identify priority areas and implement a
variety of measures.
(to the top)
Follow-up in the LP-model’s strategy
presupposes a signed contract with Lillegården Resources Centre. This
contract will be signed by the relevant local authority’s supervisory
PP-service acts as the link between the local authority and Lillegården
Resource Centre, and plays a central role in the implementation of the
model within the authority.
adviser at the PP-office who participates in this project, will be the
contact-person for at least one LP-school.
PP-service and the schools agree to utilize the LP-model for at least 2
PP-service will set aside sufficient time for advising and dealing with
the internal follow-up as it is defined in the project contract
(according to their own guidelines).
groups will be established in each school which has 5 – 7 participants,
so that the whole teaching force within the school, will be involved.
Each individual school will set aside time for the teacher-group’s
work, with a minimum of one school-hour every fortnight.
schools nominate work-groups and a co-ordinator according to their own
authority establishes, within its area, a network with support from the
local PP-service and Lillegården Resource Centre
local authority’s financial responsibility
During the 2 year period 2006 – 2008, the local
authority will pay an annual charge for each school which is involved
in the implementation of the LP-model strategy. This charge will be
based on the number of pupils involved. The amount applicable is shown
in the following table:
with fewer than 50 pupils
with 50 – 100
with 100 – 200 pupils
with 200 – 300 pupils
with over 300 pupils
authorities taking part in the implementation of the LP-model strategy
Follow-up and training for the PP-advisers (3 modules).
Training and follow-up of the leaders of the teacher groups
Fixed training days for
all staff at the lp-schools.
Membership of the network.
All members of staff at the LP-school will receive material. This
includes books dealing with theory basics and the application of the
analysis model, and access to articles on related subjects
Distance learning through electronic conferences/chatrooms and the
LP-model’s web pages.
Evaluation and recording systems for the LP- schools.
The support of advisers from Lillegården Resource Centre throughout the
process, with follow-ups within each local authority. The advisers are
the contact link with the colleges and universities.
advising and follow-up
(to the top)
All the participants will be offered courses
Resource Centre will arrange network meetings and chatrooms where the
various LP-participants can exchange and discuss experiences using the
Resource Centre will also organize 1-2 nationwide conferences for the
lp schools and local authorities. These conferences will give the
opportunity for the discussion of experiences and also offer
participants a variety of courses.
introductory brochures dealing with the use of the LP-model, will be
prepared. The first will be a theoretical introduction to the
foundation of the model. The second will describe the use of the
LP-model by the teacher groups. The third will be a guide for the
PP-services in their work with the model.
web/home pages provide a resource bank and links to recent research and
literature on the learning environment. guides for working with the
LP-model will be available here. Lectures which have been held in
connection with subject days will be made available on the web pages.
information film will be available.
local authorities, course days or professional days will be held for
all LP-model users. The topics for the course days will include
relevant/recent research concerning problem behaviour, the learning
environment, class management and the learning achievements of the