Hjem Teori Organisering Arbeidsmåter Evaluering Litteratur English
 
Innhold English:
Basic principles
Systematics, analysis and reflection
Bottom up
The teacher is not alone
Learning organisations
A knowledge-based work experience/practice
Network
Recording and evaluating
Prerequisites for participation
Training, advising and follow-up

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About the LP-model - Learning environment and pedagogical analysis
 
  Utskriftsformat

 

The LP-model provides a working method in which the teachers collaborate in groups according to specific principles. The aim is to establish a good learning environment which ensures that all students acquire social skills and subject knowledge. The methodology involves a systematic approach to analysis and reflection, together with the development of appropriate measures and evaluation.

The LP-model is a work strategy for raising levels of expertise. The model is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Primary and Secondary Education/Ministry of Education (Utdanningsdirektoratet). The methodology has been tested through a research-based development project in 14 schools spread over three local authorities. Lillegården Resource Centre has had responsibility for the development work, whilst the Norwegian Institute for Social Research (NOVA) has had responsibility for evaluating the project.

The evaluation of the LP-project shows that it has achieved good results in vital areas of the school:

  • Students in the project schools exhibit better social skills in the form of self control, adjustment to the norms of the schools and self-assertion.
  • Students are less prone to problem behaviour and there is a calmer, more ordered atmosphere during lessons. The incidence of bullying has declined dramatically.
  • Relationships between students and teachers have improved and the atmosphere between students has also developed in a positive way.
  • The environment and culture within the school have improved and a stronger collaboration between the teachers has been established.
  • Parents are happier with the information they get from the school and the dialogue they have with the teachers.

Lillegården Resource Centre invites local authorities, schools and PP-services to participate in the work of the LP-model.

Basic principles (to the top)
Recent research shows that students’ learning and behaviour are linked to and explained by a series of conditions or factors related to the situations in which the students find themselves. (Egelund og Foss-Hansen 1997, Sørlie 2000, Ogden 2001, Nordahl 2003, 2005). In the school such factors can, for example be linked to the relationships between peers, the relationship between student and teacher, the teaching, classroom management and the student’s well-being (Nordahl 2000). Behavioural problems, both in and outside the school, manifest themselves as a result of a complex phenomenon.

The consequences of this knowledge are that behavioural problems and the development of a good learning environment can not be resolved by a particular strategy within the school and that it is not sufficient to focus on the person responsible for the behaviour. This understanding has its basis in systems theory. A systematic understanding of actions and behaviour therefore implies that an interaction takes place between the environment and the single individual.(Bronfenbrenner 1979)

This interaction occurs when children and youngsters learn in a meaningful way at school and also when they display a variety of behavioural problems (Patterson 1982).The LP- model uses systems theory as a way of understanding that an interaction, in the form of communication and direct social interaction occurs between the participants. It is the social dynamic and the interaction which are of interest in the understanding of the systems theory which is applied.

The system perspective is vital in order to understand how the students experience the learning environment, which behavioural and learning results they achieve and how behavioural problems and lack of learning can be met in an appropriate way. The patterns and structures of the social systems in which the children and teenagers take part, influence the actions they display.

Systematics, analysis and reflection (to the top)
The LP-model is a system theoretic analysis model and not a method. It is a model for the analysis of educational challenges, the improvement of the learning environment and the realisation of suitable education in the school. The aim is to gain an explicit understanding of the factors which trigger, influence and maintain the students’ actions and behaviour. The model includes a range of work principles which demonstrate how one should proceed in order to arrive at a decision about what should be done. The teachers themselves evolve the measures which should be used in order to develop good learning environments. The measures should be directed towards reducing the importance of the factors which trigger and maintain problems in the school.

Work with the LP-model does not follow traditional strategies which involve trying out a method or a particular measure in the school. The measures which the teachers will implement will be developed locally as a result of an analysis of the challenges and conditions in the particular class/group or school. This is in accordance with research on how development work should be carried out in school.

The procedural method can be simply outlined as follows:

Analysis and reflection section:

  • A teacher presents to the teachers’ group a challenge related to a student, group/class or his/her own class management.
  • Collective analysis of the challenge takes place in order to arrive at a concrete approach to the problem and to determine what information needs to be collected.
  • Collective planning concerning the assembling of information.
  • The collecting of information.
  • Analysis of the information in order to find those factors responsible for causing the problem.

Strategy and Measures section:

  • Collective strategy and the development of measures.
  • Collective preparation of a plan for implementing the measures.
  • The teacher implements the plan for three to six weeks
  • Collective evaluation of the implementation.
  • The plans can be revised along the way.

Bottom up (to the top)
The teacher who is closest to the class/group or pupil, decides what aspects will be worked on and the measures which will be implemented.

“The one doing the job, knows the problems.” This is the basis which determines who will decide what will be analysed and reflected upon when the groups of teachers endeavour to understand and find appropriate strategies which can be used to solve or reduce the challenges facing the school.

When it is the teachers themselves who define what is complicated and difficult, they probably also know best what they need to learn more about. This type of approach to development work in the school means that it is the teachers who come with the request for new theories. It is not the teachers’ superiors who define what the teachers need to learn more about.

The teacher is not alone (to the top)
All teachers are members of teacher-groups within the school and in the process, they receive support from their colleagues and from the PP-service. The work of analysis and reflection takes place over time within long established groups. The same colleagues meet at regular, fixed times – they systematize the work. Working together, they have a joint responsibililty to highlight challenges which occur in different theoretical perspectives.

The LP-model assumes that the teachers cooperate, among other things, in order to achieve the best results. Teacher-groups will be established so that the teachers meet regularly in order to utilize the model’s principles. It appears to be an advantage if the composition of the teacher-groups cuts across the existing team and year group structures. A leader is chosen for the group and it is the leader’s responsibility to lead the work in the group thereafter.

Learning organisations (to the top)
The work is organised along the lines of learning organisations. Increased expertise and competence can be achieved in a supportive and positive learning environment.

Teachers are given the opportunity to acquire new expertise on which they can reflect. It involves utilising new concepts and internalising them such that one’s own behaviour may be altered. This can then reflect new expertise and insight. Expertise will be developed and shared.

By organising the work through groups which meet systematically at regular time intervals, the teachers can develop a culture in which they can, through reflection distance themselves from the complexities and difficulties of daily life. They will learn to be less afraid to speak out, they will develop together and they will learn to trust one another. The aim is that the individual teacher will become a participant who can argue and stand by what she/he says, and who dares to come forward instead of feeling a victim of the pupils’ “bad manners.”

A knowledge-based work experience/practice (to the top)
The LP-model is based on knowledge of the effective development work in schools and on the research into what characterises good schools when considering the prevention, handling and reduction of problem behaviour in the school (Hargreaves 1996, Charlton & David 1993).

The PP-service which will advise schools which wish to utilise the LP-model, will be involved in the training of advisers. These external advisers will be able to carry out the training of school coordinators and teacher-group leaders within the local authority. The PP-service will advise the teacher-groups and coordinators on the use of the LP-model.

Lillegården Resource Centre will arrange for network meetings and a chatroom where the various LP- participants can exchange views and discuss experiences using the model. Within the local authorities, course or topic days will be arranged for all those using the LP-model. The themes for the course days will involve relevant research on problem behaviour, the learning environment, classroom management and the learning achievements of the pupils.

Network (to the top)
The LP-model will facilitate the development of knowledge through the exchange of experiences between the PP-services, schools and local authorities, in the form of physical meetings and electronic conference rooms /chatrooms.

There are many ways of operating a network, but whatever the method, a network aimed at following up the PP-collaborators (ie those working with the LP-model) is not aimed at evaluating the participants’ work. Neither is it a question of “agreeing”, nor a meeting which focuses on those who are not capable enough.

Through such networks it is hoped to engage in innovative work with the intention of improving practice and widening the repertoire of courses of action available to the individual participant.

Network meetings will be an arena for the exchange of experiences and for reflection. It is planned that the most experienced members in the group contribute by giving a presentation of practice and the challenges which are linked to it. After this type of presentation, it is hoped that members share experiences with one another, reflect on them from different perspectives and in this way create a basis for new and better practice.

The Networks’ strengths are characterised primarily by:

  • The level of involvement which the participants feel towards the subject of practice and the problems which arise in relation to their own/ collective professional practice.
  • The mutual dependence on each other’s ability and competence.
  • The willingness, which is based on the confidence and trust that Lillegården Resource Centre functions as coordinator
  • The taking of mutual responsibility for each other’s benefit from the network, the regular exchange of giving and receiving advice

Recording and evaluating (to the top)
All participating schools will be offered good, tried and tested recording methods and the opportunity to get research-based processing of the results. In the evaluation of the LP-model a selection of questionnaires will be used. The questionnaires were tried out earlier, both nationally and internationally, and were characterized by the fact that in the presentation of the results, factors, and not just simple questions could be extracted. By the use of the word “factors” it is understood that several questions together were used to measure the extent of a phenomenon. This means that with a relatively high degree of certainty, one can say that the results are both reliable and valid.

The evaluation methods which are used for the LP-model, have now been tried on a total of ca 3,000 pupils and their teachers and parents, through the ”LP-project” (www.eldhusetfagforum.no/lp-prosjektet). This provides a good database for the comparison of results within the individual schools with those of a cross-section of other schools in Norway. By continued use of these questionnaires in the LP-model, schools will quickly be able to evaluate their weaknesses and strengths, and with this as a basis, be able to identify priority areas and implement a variety of measures.

Prerequisites for participation (to the top)
Follow-up in the LP-model’s strategy presupposes a signed contract with Lillegården Resources Centre. This contract will be signed by the relevant local authority’s supervisory body.

The PP-service acts as the link between the local authority and Lillegården Resource Centre, and plays a central role in the implementation of the model within the authority.

Each adviser at the PP-office who participates in this project, will be the contact-person for at least one LP-school.

The PP-service and the schools agree to utilize the LP-model for at least 2 years.

The PP-service will set aside sufficient time for advising and dealing with the internal follow-up as it is defined in the project contract (according to their own guidelines).

Teacher groups will be established in each school which has 5 – 7 participants, so that the whole teaching force within the school, will be involved. Each individual school will set aside time for the teacher-group’s work, with a minimum of one school-hour every fortnight.

The LP- schools nominate work-groups and a co-ordinator according to their own guidelines.

Each local authority establishes, within its area, a network with support from the local PP-service and Lillegården Resource Centre

The local authority’s financial responsibility
During the 2 year period 2006 – 2008, the local authority will pay an annual charge for each school which is involved in the implementation of the LP-model strategy. This charge will be based on the number of pupils involved. The amount applicable is shown in the following table:

Total number of pupils        Charge per year
Schools with fewer than 50 pupils   nok. 12.000,-
Schools with 50 – 100 pupils           nok. 15.000,-
Schools with 100 – 200 pupils  nok. 17.000,-
Schools with 200 – 300 pupils nok. 20.000,-
Schools with over 300 pupils     nok. 22.000,-

Local authorities taking part in the implementation of the LP-model strategy receive:

  • Follow-up and training for the PP-advisers (3 modules).
  • Training and follow-up of the leaders of the teacher groups
  • Fixed training days for all staff at the lp-schools.
  • Membership of the network.
  • All members of staff at the LP-school will receive material. This includes books dealing with theory basics and the application of the analysis model, and access to articles on related subjects
  • Distance learning through electronic conferences/chatrooms and the LP-model’s web pages.
  • Evaluation and recording systems for the LP- schools.
  • The support of advisers from Lillegården Resource Centre throughout the process, with follow-ups within each local authority. The advisers are the contact link with the colleges and universities.

Training, advising and follow-up (to the top)
All the participants will be offered courses and follow-up

Lillegården Resource Centre will arrange network meetings and chatrooms where the various LP-participants can exchange and discuss experiences using the model.

Lillegården Resource Centre will also organize 1-2 nationwide conferences for the lp schools and local authorities. These conferences will give the opportunity for the discussion of experiences and also offer participants a variety of courses.

Three introductory brochures dealing with the use of the LP-model, will be prepared. The first will be a theoretical introduction to the foundation of the model. The second will describe the use of the LP-model by the teacher groups. The third will be a guide for the PP-services in their work with the model.

The web/home pages provide a resource bank and links to recent research and literature on the learning environment. guides for working with the LP-model will be available here. Lectures which have been held in connection with subject days will be made available on the web pages.

An information film will be available.

Within the local authorities, course days or professional days will be held for all LP-model users. The topics for the course days will include relevant/recent research concerning problem behaviour, the learning environment, class management and the learning achievements of the pupils.